Annals of Allied Health Sciences <p>“ANNALS OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES (AAHS)” is the official journal of Khyber Medical University (KMU) Peshawar Pakistan and is published from KMU Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Pakistan. The journal is recongnised by Higher Education of Pakistan. It is a PEER REVIEWED journal and follows the uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals, updated on Annals of Allied Health Sciences is one of the poineers Allied Health Sciences Journals which adopted fully online article submission, tracking and peer review system. The journal is published on controlled circulation basis and distributed among the faculty of all Medical/Allied Health colleges and tertiary referral centers, main libraries and medical universities throughout Pakistan. The journal is recognised by Higher Education Commission, Pakistan for the year 2020-2021 and 2023-2024.</p> Khyber Medical University, Peshawar en-US Annals of Allied Health Sciences 2414-2433 <p><strong>Open Access</strong>&nbsp;This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits any non-commercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.&nbsp;To view a copy of this licence, visit&nbsp;<a href="" rel="license"></a>.</p> MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH TOGETHER: NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND MENTAL HEALTH IN SOUTH ASIA <p>Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and mental health are major public health challenges in South Asia. According to the WHO, NCDs account for about 60% of deaths in the region, and mental health disorders affect approximately 7.5% of the population. These health issues are complex and interrelated, with one often exacerbating the other. In many cases, the prevalence of NCDs and mental health disorders in South Asia is linked to lifestyle factors. In addition, poverty and lack of access to healthcare, contribute to the burden of these diseases. One of the major challenges in addressing NCDs and mental health in South Asia is the lack of awareness and stigma associated with these conditions. Many people in the region do not seek medical help for mental health issues due to shame and fear of discrimination. Similarly, there is often a lack of understanding about the importance of healthy lifestyle choices and the prevention and management of NCDs.</p> <p>To address these challenges, it is essential to prioritize investment in healthcare infrastructure and human resources. This includes increasing the availability and accessibility of mental health services and primary healthcare, as well as investing in health education and awareness programs. Governments and policymakers in the region must also prioritize the implementation of policies to promote healthy lifestyles, such as taxation on tobacco and alcohol products, and regulations on unhealthy food products.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH TOGETHER</strong></p> <p>NCDs are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. According to the WHO, NCDs accounted for 71% of global deaths in 2019. South Asia is no exception to this trend. However, the link between mental and physical health in the context of NCDs has often been overlooked in this region. NCDs are a significant burden in South Asia, with a prevalence of 60-80% among adults. NCDs are largely preventable. However, mental health is also an important risk factor for NCDs, with depression and anxiety being the most common mental health disorders in the region. Mental and physical health are interconnected and should be addressed together. Poor mental health can lead to physical health problems, and vice versa. For example, depression and anxiety increase the risk of NCDs such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Additionally, NCDs can also lead to poor mental health outcomes. It is essential to address mental and physical health together in the context of NCDs to achieve better health outcomes.</p> <p>Research has shown that mental and physical health are interconnected, with one often affecting the other. Conversely, mental health disorders can lead to physical symptoms such as headaches, stomach pain, and fatigue. Exercise improves mental health as it releases endorphins, which are chemicals that promote feelings of happiness and euphoria. It also helps to reduce stress and improve cognitive function, leading to better overall mental health. The stigma about mental health can prevent people from taking help, leading to increased suffering and poorer health outcomes. Addressing the stigma surrounding mental health is crucial to promoting overall well-being. This involves challenging negative attitudes and perceptions towards mental health issues, promoting education and awareness, and providing resources and support for those who are struggling.</p> <p><strong>THE IMPORTANCE OF HOLISTIC CARE</strong></p> <p>Holistic care is an approach that considers the entire person and addresses both their mental and physical health needs and that one cannot be adequately addressed without addressing the other. Holistic care involves a team-based approach that includes healthcare professionals such as psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers, alongside medical professionals. An integrated care approach that addresses both mental and physical health is essential to improving health outcomes in South Asia. Integrated care involves the coordination of healthcare services across different providers and settings. In the context of NCDs, integrated care can include the provision of mental health services as part of routine care for NCDs. This approach can improve the quality of care and reduce the burden of NCDs in the region. Healthcare providers have a crucial role in addressing both mental and physical health in the context of NCDs. They can assist in identifying mental health disorders in patients with NCDs and providing appropriate treatment. Additionally, healthcare providers can also provide support and education to individuals with NCDs to improve their mental and physical health outcomes.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>THE IMPORTANCE OF PREVENTION</strong></p> <p>Prevention is key to reducing the burden of NCDs in South Asia. A comprehensive approach that includes the promotion of healthy lifestyles, screening, and early detection of NCDs, and the provision of appropriate treatment is necessary to prevent NCDs. Additionally, addressing risk factors for both mental and physical health, such as unhealthy diet and physical inactivity, is crucial to prevent NCDs and improve overall health outcomes.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>CONCLUSION</strong></p> <p>In conclusion, mental and physical health are deeply interconnected, and addressing one requires addressing the other. Holistic care that considers the entire person is crucial to promoting overall well-being. Addressing stigma is also crucial to ensure that people take help without fear of judgment or discrimination. As the link between mental and physical health is essential in the context of NCDs in South Asia. Mental health is an important risk factor for NCDs, and poor mental health outcomes can also result from NCDs. The stigma surrounding mental health in the region can prevent individuals from seeking help, making it crucial to address this issue. An integrated care approach that addresses both mental and physical health is necessary to improve health outcomes in the region. Healthcare providers have a crucial role in identifying mental health disorders and providing appropriate treatment. Prevention is key to reducing the burden of NCDs in the region, and a comprehensive approach that includes the promotion of healthy lifestyles and early detection of NCDs is necessary to achieve this goal. It is time to address mental and physical health together in the context of NCDs in South Asia to achieve better health outcomes for all.</p> Bilal Ahmad Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Bilal Ahmad Khan 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 9 1 1 2 ASSOCIATION OF SMARTPHONE USAGE AND HAND GRIP STRENGTH AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: A CORRELATION STUDY <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>:</strong> To determine the frequency of smartphone usage and its association with hand grip strength among university students.</p> <p><strong>Material &amp; Methods:</strong> Three hundred and twenty-two university students were recruited in a cross-sectional study in duration from July to October. Informed consent was taken. Demographics were recorded. Smartphone usage was assessed through the Smartphone addiction scale –short version. Hand grip strength was evaluated with Jamar handheld dynamometer.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean age of 322 participants were 21±1.7 years with 212 (65.8%) females and 110 (24.2%) males. Result showed 87 (27.01%) frequent smartphone users out of 322 participants. However, the grip strength did not correlate smartphone usage (r = 0.06; P &lt; 0.91).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It concludes that the smart phone usage is less frequent among university students and hand grip strength does not associate with smartphone usage.</p> Aftab Ahmed Mirza Baig Tooba Batool Ayesha Sonia Aimen Khan Rabia Hassan Copyright (c) 2023 Aftab Ahmed Mirza Baig, Tooba Batool, Ayesha Sonia, Aimen Khan, Rabia Hassan 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 9 1 3 7 MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSIVE DISORDERS IN PREGNANCY AMONG PATIENTS OF DIFFERENT HOSPITALS IN DISTRICT PESHAWAR <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>:</strong> To determine the frequency of hypertensive disorders among pregnant women attending different hospitals in Peshawar.</p> <p><strong>Material &amp; Methods:</strong> A total of 130 pregnant women through non-probability convenient sampling technique were recruited. After seeking written consent from individual participants, a predesigned questionnaire was filled. Data was collected and analyzed by using SPSS version 16.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Of the total participants, 75 (57.7%) were in the age range of 26-35 years and 73(56.2%) were illiterate. Only 14(10.8%) were observed Hypertensive (<u>&gt;</u> 140mmHg) assessed at the time of first pregnancy test. During pregnancy the frequency of Hypertensive (<u>&gt;</u> 140mmHg) women increased remarkably 105(80.8%). Statistical test showed a significant difference p=0.013 for the hypertensive category distributed in three different stage of pregnancy. It was found that 10(7.7%) women underwent through caesarean section and 2 (1.5%) stillbirth cases were also observed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The management of hypertensive disorders among pregnant women was found sub-optimal.</p> Zahin Anjum Shaista Ali Amina Rahat Rabia Chishti Faryal Yousaf Sumbla Yousaf Copyright (c) 2023 Zahin Anjum, Shaista Ali, Amina Rahat, Rabia Chishti, Faryal Yousaf , Sumbla Yousaf 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 9 1 8 13 QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG DOCTOR OF PHYSICAL THERAPY STUDENTS USING SF-36 SCALE <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>:</strong> To assess the life quality amongst undergraduate physiotherapy students by means of Short-form 36 (SF-36) health questionnaire and to contrast variation in quality of life realms among males &amp; females.</p> <p><strong>Material &amp; Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional research was conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan among 145 undergraduate physical therapy students to assess the life quality domains. Demographic proforma and SF-36 health survey questionnaire was used for data collection. Data collection was completed by using convenience sampling. To evaluate scores between males and females an independent-sample T-test was performed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Mean age of all male students was 22.02 ±1.67 years &amp; female student was 21.09±1.90 years. Highest outcome was noted in the physical functioning (71.66) and pain (67.14), on the other hand low scores was calculated in social functioning (64.46), emotional problems (58.95), physical health (59.71), energy (53.74) and general health (56.45). A notable difference was seen concerning pain domain for males vs. females (76.90±22.33 vs.57.37±23.71; p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study concludes low score between majority domains of quality of life which means quality of life is poor between students. Therefore in coming time more studies should be conducted to recognize the elements linked with poor quality of life in order to establish enhanced health measures to make quality of life better.</p> Babar Ali Aqeel Ahmed Haider Ali Sonia Wali Shoukat Hayat Taher Masood Copyright (c) 2023 Babar Ali, Aqeel Ahmed, Haider Ali, Sonia wali, Shoukat Hayat, Taher Masood 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 9 1 14 18 ATTRIBUTES OF AN EFFECTIVE NURSING TEACHER: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>:</strong> To identify characteristics/attributes of a quality nursing teacher using survey instrument: attributes of quality health educator’.</p> <p><strong>Material &amp; Methods:</strong> This is a cross-sectional study conducted at Begum Bilqees Sultana, Institute of Nursing, Peoples University of Medical &amp; Health Sciences, Shaheed Benazirabad during January-March, 2022. A structured 15-item, ranking-based 'Survey instrument: attributes of an effective health educator scale' was used to collect the data from four-year Bachelor' of Science in Nursing students of study year 2<sup>nd</sup>, 3<sup>rd</sup>, &amp; 4<sup>th</sup> year. First-year students were excluded because of their less than 06 months of educational experience.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Participants ranked clarity, knowledge base, well-prepared, respects students’ autonomy &amp; independence, and enthusiastic attributes at 1<sup>st</sup> m 2<sup>nd</sup>, 3<sup>rd</sup>, 4<sup>th</sup>, &amp; 5<sup>th</sup> slot, respectively. The 6<sup>th</sup>, 7<sup>th</sup>, 8<sup>th</sup>, 9<sup>th</sup>, &amp; 10<sup>th</sup> priority positions were by ‘grabbed feedback, organization skills, listening skills &amp; availability, role model, and sincerity’ as teachers’ attributes. The scholarly activity and utilization of evidence-based practice attributes failed to gain students' due attention.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The failure of students to provide scholarly activity and utilization of evidence-based practice attributes is another area for future research. In-depth studies are warranted to drill the factors that inhibit students' due attention in this regard.</p> Pir Bux Jokhio Ghulam Abbas Panhwar Rashid Hussain Burdi Bhagul Shar Musrat Bibi Muhammad Iqbal Kunmbhar Copyright (c) 2023 Pir Bux Jokhio, Ghulam Abbas Panhwar, Rashid Hussain Burdi, Bhagul Shar, Musrat Bibi, Muhammad Iqbal Kunmbhar 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 9 1 19 24 PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME CORONAVIRUS 2 VARIANT COVID-19 ON HEALTH CARE WORKERS IN PESHAWAR <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>:</strong> To assess the psychological impacts of COVID-19 on the health care workers (HCWs) in Peshawar.</p> <p><strong>Material &amp; Methods:</strong> A total of 350 self-administered questionnaires were distributed among the health care workers of three big teaching hospitals in district Peshawar, out of which 308 were suitable for analysis. The completed questionnaires were collected from the health care workers within due course of time and their responses were noted and the data were analyzed. </p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Males were 55.2% and 44.8% were females. Among all health care workers, doctors were a major group (43.17%), nurses were 34.09% and other staff members were 22.72%. Exposure to COVID-19 was 85.064 % and 14.935 % were unexposed. The main concerns of health workers were: lack of personal protective equipment (PPE) 246 (79.87%), self-infection 243 (78.89%), medical violence 157 (50.97%), family infections 134 (43.50%) and getting infection from infected colleagues were 98 (31.81 %). </p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study concluded that COVID-19 outbreak has significant psychological impacts on healthcare workers. In majority of the cases, the reason for the psychological impacts were the lack of PPE which could cause infection to the workers as well as their family members and endanger their lives.</p> Muhammad Razaq Khan Suhail Ahmad Asma Mehmood Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Razaq Khan, Suhail Ahmad, Asma Mehmood 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 9 1 25 30