Objective: To determine the clinical profile and risk factors associated with hyponatremia in subjects presented to a private tertiary care hospital.
Material & Methods: The prospective observational study was performed from July, 2017 to December 2018 at the Northwest General Hospital and Research Centre Peshawar. Convenient sampling was used and a structured format was used for data collection. The study comprised data of all patients who had sodium level less than 135 mmol/L.
Results: Out of 500 patients recruited for the study, 296(59.2%) were male and 204(40.8%) were female with a mean age of 52.5years. Mostly patients had euvolemia (65.6%). Altered mental status (76.6%), lethargy (21%), dizziness (18.4%) and headache (14.4%) were the most common symptoms. Hypertension (42.4%) and diabetes (50.8%) were most common risk factors. In all, 225 of patients had sodium level of 130-134 (45%), 156 had level of 120-129 (31.2%), 85 had 110-119 (17%) and 34 patients had sodium level less than 109 mg/dl (6.8%). Of the total 26 patients expired while 474 were discharged with improved sodium levels.
Conclusion: Hyponatremia increases in-hospital mortality risk. Physicians should be aware of the risk factors associated with hyponatremia for early diagnosis and prompt treatment.
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