Introduction: Thalassemia is the most common inherited blood disorder with reduced rate of synthesis of either alpha or beta chain of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin electrophoresis is used to diagnose beta thalassemia but it is costly. Therefore, this study was conducted to find out the sensitivity and specificity of complete blood count and single tube osmotic fragility test in diagnosis of thalassemia trait.
Methods: In the present study we included 300 blood samples and 50 control samples from normal individual and 50 control samples from known thalassemia patients. Complete blood count was performed by using a hematological analyzer Sysmex KX 21. Single tube osmotic fragility test was performed by using a hypotonic solution of 0.36% concentration.
Result: Single osmotic fragility test was performed on 300 patients’ samples and controls’ samples. Normal controls showed negative result while in known thalassemia patient 48 samples showed positive result and 2 samples showed false negative result. In 300 samples 280 (93.33%) samples showed positive result with 93% sensitivity while 20 samples showed false negative result having 87% specificity. In complete blood count parameter, the sensitivity of red blood cell, red cell indices, hemoglobin level and red blood cell distribution width was 98%, 100%, 98% and 96% respectively.
Conclusion: As the sensitivity and specificity of single tube osmotic fragility test and complete blood count parameters is high therefore, it can be used for screening large populations in a cost effective way